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CompGeo Health Care Occupation Group Benchmark Job Descriptions
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Job Family: Chiropratic
Benchmark Title: Chiropractors
Chiropractors, also known as doctors of chiropractic or chiropractic physicians,
diagnose and treat patients whose health problems are associated with muscular, nervous, and skeletal systems,
especially the spine. In cases in which difficulties can be traced to the involvement of musculoskeletal
structures, chiropractors manually adjust the spinal column. Some chiropractors use water, light, massage,
ultrasound, electric, and heat therapy. They also may apply supports such as straps, tapes, and braces.
Chiropractors counsel patients about wellness concepts such as nutrition, exercise, changes in lifestyle, and
stress management, but do not prescribe drugs or perform surgery.
 
 
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Job Family: Dental
Benchmark Title: Dental Assistants
Dental assistants perform a variety of patient care, office, and laboratory duties. They work chairside as dentists
examine and treat patients. They make patients as comfortable as possible in the dental chair, prepare them for
treatment, and obtain their dental records. Assistants hand instruments and materials to dentists and keep patients
mouths dry and clear by using suction or other devices. Assistants also sterilize and disinfect instruments and
equipment, prepare trays of instruments for dental procedures, and instruct patients on postoperative and general
oral health care. Some dental assistants prepare materials for impressions and restorations, take dental x rays,
and process x-ray film as directed by a dentist.
 
Benchmark Title: Dental Hygienists
Dental hygienists remove soft and hard deposits from teeth, teach patients how to practice good oral hygiene, and
provide other preventive dental care. Hygienists examine patients teeth and gums, recording the presence of
diseases or abnormalities. They remove calculus, stains, and plaque from teeth; perform root planing as a
periodontal therapy; take and develop dental x rays; and apply cavity-preventive agents such as fluorides and pit
and fissure sealants. In some States, hygienists administer anesthetics; place and carve filling materials,
temporary fillings, and periodontal dressings; remove sutures; and smooth and polish metal restorations. Although
hygienists may not diagnose diseases, they can prepare clinical and laboratory diagnostic tests for the dentist to
interpret. Hygienists sometimes work chairside with the dentist during treatment.
 
Benchmark Title: Dental Laboratory Technicians, Precision
Dental laboratory technicians fill prescriptions from dentists for crowns, bridges, dentures, and other dental
prosthetics. In some laboratories, technicians perform all stages of the work, whereas, in other labs, each
technician does only a few. Dental laboratory technicians can specialize in 1 of 5 areas: Orthodontic appliances,
crowns and bridges, complete dentures, partial dentures, or ceramics. Job titles can reflect specialization in
these areas. For example, technicians who make porcelain and acrylic restorations are called dental ceramists.
 
Benchmark Title: Dentists
Dentists diagnose, prevent, and treat problems with teeth or mouth tissue. They remove decay, fill cavities,
examine x-rays, place protective plastic sealants teeth of children, straighten teeth, and repair fractured teeth.
They also perform corrective surgery on gums and supporting bones to treat gum diseases. Dentists extract teeth and
make models and measurements for dentures to replace missing teeth. They provide instruction on diet, brushing,
flossing, the use of fluorides, and other aspects of dental care. They also administer anesthetics and write
prescriptions for antibiotics and other medications.
 
 
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Job Family: Dietetic
Benchmark Title: Dietetic Technicians
Dietetic Technicians assist dietitians in the provision of food service and nutritional programs. Under the
supervision of dietitians, may plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and
nutrition, or counsel individuals.
 
Benchmark Title: Dietitians and Nutritionists
Dietitians and nutritionists plan food and nutrition programs and supervise the preparation and serving of meals.
They help to prevent and treat illnesses by promoting healthy eating habits and recommending dietary modifications,
such as the use of less salt for those with high blood pressure or the reduction of fat and sugar intake for those
who are overweight. Dietitians manage food service systems for institutions such as hospitals and schools, promote
sound eating habits through education, and conduct research. Major areas of practice include clinical, community,
management, and consultant dietetics
 
 
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Job Family: Health Services - Other
Benchmark Title: Electromedical and Biomedical Equipment Repairers
Medical equipment repairers and other precision instrument and equipment repairers maintain, adjust, calibrate,
and repair electronic, electromechanical, and hydraulic equipment. They use various tools, including multimeters,
specialized software, and computers designed to communicate with specific pieces of hardware. Some of their tools
are specialized, such as equipment designed to simulate water or air pressure. These repairers use handtools,
soldering irons, and other electronic tools to repair and adjust the equipment. Faulty circuit boards and other
parts are normally removed and replaced. Medical equipment and other precision instrument repairers must maintain
careful, detailed logs of all maintenance and repair on each piece of equipment.
 
Benchmark Title: Emergency Medical Technicians
In an emergency, EMTs and paramedics typically are dispatched to the scene by a 911 operator, and often work with
police and fire department personnel. Once they arrive, they determine the nature and extent of the patient?s
condition while trying to ascertain whether the patient has preexisting medical problems. Following strict rules
and guidelines, they give appropriate emergency care and, when necessary, transport the patient. Some paramedics
are trained to treat patients with minor injuries on the scene of an accident or at their home without transporting
them to a medical facility. Emergency treatment for more complicated problems is carried out under the direction of
medical doctors by radio preceding or during transport.
 
Benchmark Title: Health Educators
Promote, maintain, and improve individual and community health by assisting individuals and communities to adopt
healthy behaviors. Collect and analyze data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing,
monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies and environments. May also
serve as a resource to assist individuals, other professionals, or the community, and may administer fiscal
resources for health education programs.
 
Benchmark Title: Medical Assistants
Medical assistants perform routine administrative and clinical tasks to keep the
offices of physicians, podiatrists, chiropractors, and other health practitioners running smoothly. They should not
be confused with physician assistants, who examine, diagnose, and treat patients under the direct supervision of a
physician. The duties of medical assistants vary from office to office, depending on the location and size of the
practice and the practitioners specialty. Medical assistants perform many administrative duties, including
answering telephones, greeting patients, updating and filing patients? medical records, filling out insurance
forms, handling correspondence, scheduling appointments, arranging for hospital admission and laboratory services,
and handling billing and bookkeeping.
 
Benchmark Title: Medical Equipment Preparers
Medical Equipment Preparers prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment. May perform
routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.
 
 
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Benchmark Title: Medical Records Technicians
Medical records and health information technicians ensure that all forms are completed and properly identified and
signed, and that all necessary information is in the computer. They regularly communicate with physicians or other
healthcare professionals to clarify diagnoses or to obtain additional information. assign a code to each diagnosis
and procedure. They consult classification manuals and also rely on their knowledge of disease processes.
Technicians then use computer software to assign the patient to one of several hundred diagnosis-related groups, or
DRGs. The DRG determines the amount for which the hospital will be reimbursed if the patient is covered by Medicare
or other insurance programs using the DRG system. Technicians who specialize in coding are called health
information coders, medical record coders, coder/abstractors, or coding specialists. In addition to the DRG system,
coders use other coding systems, such as those geared towards ambulatory settings or long-term care.
 
Benchmark Title: Medical Transcriptionists
Medical transcriptionists listen to dictated recordings made by physicians and other healthcare professionals and
transcribe them into medical reports, correspondence, and other administrative material. They generally listen to
recordings on a headset, using a foot pedal to pause the recording when necessary, and key the text into a personal
computer or word processor, editing as necessary for grammar and clarity. The documents they produce include
discharge summaries, history and physical examination reports, operative reports, consultation reports, autopsy
reports, diagnostic imaging studies, progress notes, and referral letters. Medical transcriptionists return
transcribed documents to the physicians or other healthcare professionals who dictated them for review and
signature, or correction. These documents eventually become part of permanent files of patients.
 
Benchmark Title: Physician Assistants
Physician assistants (PAs) provide healthcare services under the supervision of physicians. They should not be
confused with medical assistants, who perform routine clinical and clerical tasks. (medical assistants are
discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.) PAs are formally trained to provide diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive
healthcare services, as delegated by a physician. Working as members of the healthcare team, they take medical
histories, examine and treat patients, order and interpret laboratory tests and x rays, make diagnoses, and
prescribe medications. They also treat minor injuries, by suturing, splinting, and casting. PAs record progress
notes, instruct and counsel patients, and order or carry out therapy. In 47 States and the District of Columbia,
physician assistants may prescribe medications. PAs also may have managerial duties. Some order medical and
laboratory supplies and equipment and may supervise technicians and assistants.
 
 
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Job Family: Licensed Practical Nurse
Benchmark Title: Licensed Practical Nurses
Licensed practical nurses (LPNs), or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs), care for
the sick, injured, convalescent, and disabled under the direction of physicians and registered nurses. Most LPNs
provide basic bedside care, taking vital signs such as temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration. They
also prepare and give injections and enemas, monitor catheters, apply dressings, treat bedsores, and give alcohol
rubs and massages. LPNs monitor their patients and report adverse reactions to medications or treatments. They
collect samples for testing, perform routine laboratory tests, feed patients, and record food and fluid intake and
output. To help keep patients comfortable, LPNs assist with bathing, dressing, and personal hygiene. In States
where the law allows, they may administer prescribed medicines or start intravenous fluids. Some LPNs help deliver,
care for, and feed infants. Experienced LPNs may supervise nursing assistants and aides.
 
 
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Job Family: Medical Technology
Benchmark Title: Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians
Cardiovascular technologists and technicians assist physicians in diagnosing and
treating cardiac (heart) and peripheral vascular (blood vessel) ailments. Cardiovascular technologists may
specialize in three areas of practice invasive cardiology, echocardiography, and vascular technology.
Cardiovascular technicians who specialize in electrocardiograms (EKGs), stress testing, and Holter monitors are
known as cardiographic, or EKG technicians. Cardiovascular technologists specializing in invasive procedures are
called cardiology technologists. They assist physicians with cardiac catheterization procedures in which a small
tube, or catheter, is wound through a patients blood vessel from a spot on the leg of the patient into the heart.
The procedure can determine whether a blockage exists in the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle.
 
Benchmark Title: Diagnostic Medical Sonographers
Sonography, or ultrasonography, is the use of sound waves to generate an image
for the assessment and diagnosis of various medical conditions. Many people associate sonography with obstetrics
and the viewing of the fetus in the womb, but this technology has many other applications in the diagnosis and
treatment of medical conditions. Diagnostic medical sonographers, also known as ultrasonographers, use special
equipment to direct nonionizing, high frequency sound waves into areas of the body of the patient. Sonographers
operate the equipment, which collects reflected echoes and forms an image that may be videotaped, transmitted, or
photographed for interpretation and diagnosis by a physician.
 
Benchmark Title: Medical Appliance Technicians
Medical Appliance Technicians construct, fit, maintain, or repair medical supportive devices, such as braces,
artificial limbs, joints, arch supports, and other surgical and medical appliances.
 
Benchmark Title: Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians
Medical and Clinical laboratory technicians perform less complex tests and laboratory procedures than technologists
perform. Technicians may prepare specimens and operate automated analyzers, for example, or they may perform manual
tests in accordance with detailed instructions. Like technologists, they may work in several areas of the clinical
laboratory or specialize in just one. Histotechnicians cut and stain tissue specimens for microscopic examination
by pathologists, and phlebotomists collect blood samples. They usually work under the supervision of medical and
clinical laboratory technologists or laboratory managers.
 
Benchmark Title: Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists
Medical and Clinical laboratory technologists generally have a four year college
degree in medical technology or in one of the life sciences, or they have a combination of formal training and work
experience. They perform complex chemical, biological, hematological, immunologic, microscopic, and bacteriological
tests. Technologists microscopically examine blood, tissue, and other body substances. They make cultures of body
fluid and tissue samples, to determine the presence of bacteria, fungi, parasites, or other microorganisms. Medical
and Clinical laboratory technologists analyze samples for chemical content or a chemical reaction and determine
blood glucose and cholesterol levels. They also type and cross match blood samples for transfusions.
 
 
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Benchmark Title: Opthalmic Laboratory Technicians
Ophthalmic laboratory techniciansłalso known as manufacturing opticians, optical
mechanics, or optical goods workersłmake prescription eyeglass or contact lenses. Prescription lenses are curved in
such a way that light is correctly focused onto the retina of the patientĘs eye, improving his or her vision. Some
ophthalmic laboratory technicians manufacture lenses for other optical instruments, such as telescopes and
binoculars. Ophthalmic laboratory technicians cut, grind, edge, and finish lenses according to specifications
provided by dispensing opticians, optometrists, or ophthalmologists and may insert lenses into frames to produce
finished glasses.
 
 
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Job Family: Medical Therapists
Benchmark Title: Audiologists
Audiologists work with people who have hearing, balance, and related ear problems. They examine individuals of all
ages and identify those with the symptoms of hearing loss and other auditory, balance, and related neural problems.
They then assess the nature and extent of the problems and help the individuals manage them. Using audiometers,
computers, and other testing devices, they measure the loudness at which a person begins to hear sounds, the
ability to distinguish between sounds, and the impact of hearing loss or balance problems on an individual?s daily
life. Audiologists interpret these results and may coordinate them with medical, educational, and psychological
information to make a diagnosis and determine a course of treatment.
 
Benchmark Title: Massage Therapists
Massage Therapists massage customers for hygienic or remedial purposes.
 
Benchmark Title: Nuclear Medicine Technologists
Nuclear medicine technologists operate cameras that detect and map the radioactive drug in a patient?s body to
create diagnostic images. After explaining test procedures to patients, technologists prepare a dosage of the
radiopharmaceutical and administer it by mouth, injection, or other means. They position patients and start a gamma
scintillation camera, or scanner, which creates images of the distribution of a radiopharmaceutical as it localizes
in, and emits signals from, the patients body. The images are produced on a computer screen or on film for a
physician to interpret.
 
Benchmark Title: Occupational Therapist Aides
Occupational therapist assistants help clients with rehabilitative activities and exercises outlined in a treatment
plan developed in collaboration with an occupational therapist. Activities range from teaching the proper method of
moving from a bed into a wheelchair to the best way to stretch and limber the muscles of the hand. Assistants
monitor an individuals activities to make sure that they are performed correctly and to provide encouragement. They
also record progress of client for the occupational therapist. If the treatment is not having the intended effect,
or the client is not improving as expected, the therapist may alter the treatment program in hopes of obtaining
better results
 
Benchmark Title: Occupational Therapist Assistants
Occupational therapist assistants and aides work under the direction of occupational therapists to provide
rehabilitative services to persons with mental, physical, emotional, or developmental impairments. The ultimate
goal is to improve clients quality of life and ability to perform daily activities. For example, occupational
therapist assistants help injured workers re-enter the labor force by teaching them how to compensate for lost
motor skills or help individuals with learning disabilities increase their independence.
 
 
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Benchmark Title: Occupational Therapists
Occupational therapists (OTs) help people improve their ability to perform tasks
in their daily living and working environments. They work with individuals who have conditions that are mentally,
physically, developmentally, or emotionally disabling. They also help them to develop, recover, or maintain daily
living and work skills. Occupational therapists help clients not only to improve their basic motor functions and
reasoning abilities, but also to compensate for permanent loss of function. Their goal is to help clients have
independent, productive, and satisfying lives.
 
Benchmark Title: Orthotists and Prosthetists
Orthotists and Prosthetists assist patients with disabling conditions of limbs and spine or with partial or total
absence of limb by fitting and preparing orthopedic braces or prostheses.
 
Benchmark Title: Physical Therapist Aides
Physical therapist aides help make therapy sessions productive, under the direct
supervision of a physical therapist or physical therapist assistant. They usually are responsible for keeping the
treatment area clean and organized and for preparing for each patients therapy. When patients need assistance
moving to or from a treatment area, aides push them in a wheelchair or provide them with a shoulder to lean on.
Because they are not licensed, aides do not perform the clinical tasks of a physical therapist assistant.
 
Benchmark Title: Physical Therapist Assistants
Physical therapist assistants perform a variety of tasks. Components of treatment procedures performed by these
workers, under the direction and supervision of physical therapists, involve exercises, massages, electrical
stimulation, paraffin baths, hot and cold packs, traction, and ultrasound. Physical therapist assistants record the
patient?s responses to treatment and report the outcome of each treatment to the physical therapist.
 
Benchmark Title: Physical Therapists
Physical therapists (PTs) provide services that help restore function, improve mobility, relieve pain, and prevent
or limit permanent physical disabilities of patients suffering from injuries or disease. They restore, maintain,
and promote overall fitness and health. Their patients include accident victims and individuals with disabling
conditions such as low-back pain, arthritis, heart disease, fractures, head injuries, and cerebral palsy.
Treatment often includes exercise for patients who have been immobilized and lack flexibility, strength, or
endurance. Physical therapists encourage patients to use their own muscles to increase their flexibility and range
of motion before finally advancing to other exercises that improve strength, balance, coordination, and endurance.
The goal is to improve how an individual functions at work and at home.
 
Benchmark Title: Radiation Therapists
Radiation Therapists provide radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by a radiologist according to established
practices and standards. Duties may include reviewing prescription and diagnosis; acting as liaison with physician
and supportive care personnel; preparing equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices; and
maintaining records, reports, and files. May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization.
 
 
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Benchmark Title: Radiologic Technologists
Radiologic technologists and technicians, also referred to as radiographers, produce x ray films (radiographs) of
parts of the human body for use in diagnosing medical problems. They prepare patients for radiologic examinations
by explaining the procedure, removing articles such as jewelry, through which x rays cannot pass, and positioning
patients so that the parts of the body can be appropriately radiographed. To prevent unnecessary radiation
exposure, these workers surround the exposed area with radiation protection devices, such as lead shields, or limit
the size of the x ray beam. Radiographers position radiographic equipment at the correct angle and height over the
appropriate area of a patient?s body. Using instruments similar to a measuring tape, they may measure the thickness
of the section to be radiographed and set controls on the x ray machine to produce radiographs of the appropriate
density, detail, and contrast. They place the x ray film under the part of the patient?s body to be examined and
make the exposure. They then remove the film and develop it.
 
Benchmark Title: Recreational Therapists
Recreational Therapists plan, direct, or coordinate medically-approved recreation programs for patients in
hospitals, nursing homes, or other institutions. Activities include sports, trips, dramatics, social activities,
and arts and crafts. May assess a patient condition and recommend appropriate recreational activity.
 
Benchmark Title: Respiratory Therapists
Respiratory therapists and respiratory therapy technicians also known as respiratory care practitionersłevaluate,
treat, and care for patients with breathing or other cardiopulmonary disorders. Respiratory therapists, practicing
under physician direction, assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care therapeutic treatments and
diagnostic procedures, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians. Respiratory therapy
technicians follow specific, well-defined respiratory care procedures, under the direction of respiratory
therapists and physicians. In clinical practice, many of the daily duties of therapists and technicians overlap,
although therapists generally have greater responsibility than technicians. For example, respiratory therapists
will primarily consult with physicians and other healthcare staff to help develop and modify individual patient
care plans. Respiratory therapists are also more likely to provide complex therapy requiring considerable
independent judgment, such as caring for patients on life support in hospital intensive care units. In this
statement, the term respiratory therapists includes both respiratory therapists and respiratory therapy
technicians.
 
Benchmark Title: Respiratory Therapy Technicians
Respiratory therapists and respiratory therapy technicians also known as respiratory care practitioners evaluate,
treat, and care for patients with breathing or other cardiopulmonary disorders. Respiratory therapists, practicing
under physician direction, assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care therapeutic treatments and
diagnostic procedures, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians. Respiratory therapy
technicians follow specific, well-defined respiratory care procedures, under the direction of respiratory
therapists and physicians. In clinical practice, many of the daily duties of therapists and technicians overlap,
although therapists generally have greater responsibility than technicians. For example, respiratory therapists
will primarily consult with physicians and other healthcare staff to help develop and modify individual patient
care plans. Respiratory therapists are also more likely to provide complex therapy requiring considerable
independent judgment, such as caring for patients on life support in hospital intensive care units.
 
 
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Benchmark Title: Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists
Speech-language pathologists, sometimes called speech therapists, assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent
speech, language, cognitive, communication, voice, swallowing, fluency, and other related disorders.
Speech-language pathologists work with people who cannot make speech sounds, or cannot make them clearly; those
with speech rhythm and fluency problems, such as stuttering; people with voice quality problems, such as
inappropriate pitch or harsh voice; those with problems understanding and producing language; those who wish to
improve their communication skills by modifying an accent; those with cognitive communication impairments, such as
attention, memory, and problem solving disorders; and those with hearing loss who use hearing aids or cochlear
implants in order to develop auditory skills and improve communication. They also work with people who have
swallowing difficulties.
 
 
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Job Family: Nursing
Benchmark Title: Reg Nurse-All Levels Combined
Registered nurses (RNs) work to promote health, prevent disease, and help patients cope with illness. They are
advocates and health educators for patients, families, and communities. When providing direct patient care, they
observe, assess, and record symptoms, reactions, and progress in patients; assist physicians during surgeries,
treatments, and examinations; administer medications; and assist in convalescence and rehabilitation. RNs also
develop and manage nursing care plans, instruct patients and their families in proper care, and help individuals
and groups take steps to improve or maintain their health. While State laws govern the tasks that RNs may perform,
it is usually the work setting that determines their daily job duties.
 
Benchmark Title: Registered Nurse I (Staff,Psych,Clinical)
Registered Nurse I provides comprehensive general nursing care to patients whose
conditions and treatment are normally uncomplicated. Follows established procedures, standing orders, and doctor's
instructions. Uses judgment in selecting guidelines appropriate to changing patient conditions. Routine duties are
performed independently; variations from established routines are performed under specific instructions.
Registered nurses (RNs) work to promote health, prevent disease, and help patients cope with illness. They are
advocates and health educators for patients, families, and communities. When providing direct patient care, they
observe, assess, and record symptoms, reactions, and progress in patients; assist physicians during surgeries,
treatments, and examinations; administer medications; and assist in convalescence and rehabilitation. RNs also
develop and manage nursing care plans, instruct patients and their families in proper care, and help individuals
and groups take steps to improve or maintain their health. While State laws govern the tasks that RNs may perform,
it is usually the work setting that determines their daily job duties.
 
Benchmark Title: Registered Nurse II (Staff,Pysch,Clinical,Comm Health)
Registered Nurse II plans and provides comprehensive nursing care in accordance with professional nursing
standards. Uses judgment in assessing patient conditions, interprets guidelines, and modifies patient care as
necessary. Recognizes and determines proper action for medical emergencies, e.g., calls physician or takes
preplanned emergency measures. Typical duties and responsibilities include in addition to the duties described at
level 1, usually performs more complex procedures, such as: administering blood transfusions; managing
nasal-pharyngeal, gastric suction, and other drainage tubes; using special equipment such as ventilator devices,
resuscitators, and hypothermic units; or closely monitoring postoperative and seriously ill patients.
 
 
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Benchmark Title: Registered Nurse III (Specialist/Consultant,Practitioner)
Registered Nurse III plans and performs specialized and advanced nursing assignments of considerable difficulty.
Uses expertise in assessing patient conditions and develops nursing plans which serve as a role model for others.
Evaluation and observation skills are relied upon by physicians in developing and modifying treatment. Work extends
beyond patient care to the evaluation of concepts, procedures, and program effectiveness. Typical assignments
include: Specialists. Provides specialized hospital nursing care to patients having illnesses and injuries that
require adaptation of established nursing procedures. Renders expertise in caring for patients who are seriously
ill; are not responding to normal treatment; have undergone unique surgical operations; or are receiving
infrequently used medication. Duties may require knowledge of special drugs or the ability to provide pulmonary
ventilation. Psychiatric Specialist. Provides nursing expertise on an interdisciplinary treatment team which
defines policies and develops total care programs for psychiatric patients. Practitioner. Provides primary health
care and nursing services in clinics, schools, employer health units, or community health organizations. Assesses,
diagnoses, and treats minor illnesses and manages chronic health problems.
 
Benchmark Title: Registered Nurse III Anesthetist
Registered Nurse III Anesthetist recommends and administers general anesthetics intravenously, topically, by
inhalation, or by endotracheal intubation; induces patient anesthesia, and manages proper states of patient
narcosis throughout prolonged surgeries. Determines the need for and administers parenteral fluids, including
plasma and blood; administers stimulants as directed. May also administer local anesthetics, as needed.
 
Benchmark Title: Registered Nurse IV (Expert Speclst/Consultant,Practitioner)
Registered Nurse IV plans, researches, develops, and implements new or modified techniques, methods, practices, and
approaches in nursing care. Acts as consultant in area of specialization and is considered an expert or leader
within specialty area. Consults with supervisor to develop decisions and coordinates with other medical staff and
community. Typical assignments include: Specialist/Consultant. Provides expert and complex hospital nursing and
health care to a specialized group of patients. Develops and monitors the implementation of new nursing techniques,
policies, procedures and programs; instructs nursing and medical staff in specialty; represents the specialty to
outside organizations; and evaluates, interprets, and integrates research findings into nursing practices.
Practitioner. Serves as primary health advisor in clinics and community health organizations and provides full
range of health care services. Manages clinic and is responsible for formulating nursing and health care standards
and policies, including developing and teaching new techniques or practices and establishing or revising criteria
for care. Collaborates with physician in planning, evaluating, coordinating, and revising program and determines
conditions, resources and policies essential to delivery of health care services.
 
 
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Job Family: Nursing Assistant
Benchmark Title: Home Health Aides
Home Health Aides provide routine, personal healthcare, such as bathing, dressing, or grooming, to elderly,
convalescent, or disabled persons in the home of patients or in a residential care facility.
 
Benchmark Title: Nursing Aides/Orderlies/Attendants - All Levels Combined
Nursing aides, also known as nursing assistants, geriatric aides, unlicensed assistive personnel, or hospital
attendants, perform routine tasks under the supervision of nursing and medical staff. They answer patients call
lights, deliver messages, serve meals, make beds, and help patients eat, dress, and bathe. Aides also may provide
skin care to patients; take their temperatures, pulse rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure; and help patients
get in and out of bed and walk. They also may escort patients to operating and examining rooms, keep patients rooms
neat, set up equipment, store and move supplies, or assist with some procedures. Aides observe patients physical,
mental, and emotional conditions and report any change to the nursing or medical staff.
 
Benchmark Title: Personal and Home Care Aides
Personal and home care aides also called homemakers, caregivers, companions, and
personal attendants provide housekeeping and routine personal care services. They clean clientsĘ houses, do
laundry, and change bed linens. Aides may plan meals (including special diets), shop for food, and cook. Aides also
may help clients move from bed, bathe, dress, and groom. Some accompany clients outside the home, serving as a
guide and companion.
 
 
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Job Family: Optometry
Benchmark Title: Opticians, Dispensing and Measuring
Dispensing opticians fit eyeglasses and contact lenses, following prescriptions written by ophthalmologists or
optometrists. Dispensing opticians examine written prescriptions to determine the specifications of lenses. They
recommend eyeglass frames, lenses, and lens coatings after considering the prescription and the occupation, habits,
and facial features of the customer. Dispensing opticians measure eyes, including the distance between the centers
of the pupils and the distance between the surface and the lens of the client.
 
Benchmark Title: Optometrists
Optometrists, also known as doctors of optometry, or ODs, provide most primary vision care. They examine peopleĘs
eyes to diagnose vision problems and eye diseases, and they test visual acuity, depth and color perception of the
patient, and ability to focus and coordinate the eyes. Optometrists prescribe eyeglasses and contact lenses and
provide vision therapy and low-vision rehabilitation. Optometrists analyze test results and develop a treatment
plan. They administer drugs to patients to aid in the diagnosis of vision problems and prescribe drugs to treat
some eye diseases. Optometrists often provide preoperative and postoperative care to cataract patients, as well as
patients who have had laser vision correction or other eye surgery. They also diagnose conditions due to systemic
diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure, referring patients to other health practitioners as needed.
 
 
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Job Family: Pharmacy
Benchmark Title: Pharmacist I/II
Pharmacists dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to
patients about medications and their use. They advise physicians and other health practitioners on the selection,
dosages, interactions, and side effects of medications. Pharmacists also monitor the health and progress of
patients in response to drug therapy to ensure safe and effective use of medication. Pharmacists must understand
the use, clinical effects, and composition of drugs, including their chemical, biological, and physical properties.
Compounding the actual mixing of ingredients to form powders, tablets, capsules, ointments, and solutions is a
small part of practice of a pharmacist, because most medicines are produced by pharmaceutical companies in a
standard dosage and drug delivery form. Traditionally, most pharmacists work in a community setting, such as a
retail drugstore, or in a healthcare facility, such as a hospital, nursing home, mental health institution, or
neighborhood health clinic.
 
Benchmark Title: Pharmacist III
Pharmacist III is an experienced pharmacist responsible for independently contributing to and guiding others in
meeting the pharmaceutical care needs of patients and patients' clinicians. Pharmacist III's are independently
competent to provide pharmacokinetic dosing consultations. The job description includes all duties outlined in
Pharmacist levels I and II.
 
Benchmark Title: Pharmacy Aides
Pharmacy aides help licensed pharmacists with administrative duties in running a
pharmacy. Aides often are clerks or cashiers who primarily answer telephones, handle money, stock shelves, and
perform other clerical duties. They work closely with pharmacy technicians.
 
Benchmark Title: Pharmacy Technicians
Pharmacy technicians help licensed pharmacists provide medication and other healthcare products to patients.
Technicians usually perform routine tasks to help prepare prescribed medication for patients, such as counting
tablets and labeling bottles. Technicians refer any questions regarding prescriptions, drug information, or health
matters to a pharmacist.
 
 
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Job Family: Physicians and Surgeons
Benchmark Title: Anesthesiologists
Anesthesiologists focus on the care of surgical patients and pain relief. Like other physicians, they evaluate and
treat patients and direct the efforts of those on their staffs. Anesthesiologists confer with other physicians and
surgeons about appropriate treatments and procedures before, during, and after operations. These critical
specialists are responsible for maintenance of the patient?s vital life functions heart rate, body temperature,
blood pressure, breathing through continual monitoring and assessment during surgery.
 
Benchmark Title: Family and General Practicioners
Family and general practitioners are often the first point of contact for people
seeking health care, acting as the traditional family doctor. They assess and treat a wide range of conditions,
ailments, and injuries, from sinus and respiratory infections to broken bones and scrapes. Family and general
practitioners typically have a patient base of regular, long-term visitors. Patients with more serious conditions
are referred to specialists or other healthcare facilities for more intensive care.
 
Benchmark Title: Internists, General
General internists diagnose and provide nonsurgical treatment for diseases and injuries of internal organ systems.
General internists provide care mainly for adults who have a wide range of problems associated with the internal
organs, such as the stomach, kidneys, liver, and digestive tract. Internists use a variety of diagnostic techniques
to treat patients through medication or hospitalization. Like general practitioners, general internists are
commonly looked upon as primary care specialists. General internists have patients referred to them by other
specialists, in turn referring patients to those and yet other specialists when more complex care is required.
 
Benchmark Title: Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Obstetricians and gynecologists (ob/gyns) are specialists whose focus is health of women. They are responsible for
general medical care for women, but also provide care related to pregnancy and the reproductive system. Like
general practitioners, ob/gyns are concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of general health
problems, but they focus on ailments specific to the female anatomy, such as breast and cervical cancer, urinary
tract and pelvic disorders, and hormonal disorders. Ob/gyns also specialize in childbirth, treating and counseling
women throughout their pregnancy, from giving prenatal diagnoses to delivery and postpartum care. Ob/gyns track the
health of, and treat, both mother and fetus as the pregnancy progresses.
 
Benchmark Title: Pediatricians, General
General pediatricians provide care from birth to early adulthood, pediatricians are concerned with the health of
infants, children, and teenagers. hey specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of ailments specific
to young people and track their patients growth to adulthood. Like most physicians, pediatricians work with
different healthcare workers, such as nurses and other physicians, to assess and treat children with various
ailments, such as muscular dystrophy. Most of the work of pediatricians, however, involves treating day-to-day
illnesses that are common to children minor injuries, infectious diseases, and immunizations much as a general
practitioner treats adults. Some pediatricians specialize in serious medical conditions and pediatric surgery,
treating autoimmune disorders or serious chronic ailments.
 
 
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Benchmark Title: Psychiatrists
Psychiatrists are the primary caregivers in the area of mental health. They assess and treat mental illnesses
through a combination of psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, hospitalization, and medication. Psychotherapy involves
regular discussions with patients about their problems; the psychiatrist helps them find solutions through changes
in their behavioral patterns, the exploration of their past experiences, and group and family therapy sessions.
Psychoanalysis involves long-term psychotherapy and counseling for patients. In many cases, medications are
administered to correct chemical imbalances that may be causing emotional problems. Psychiatrists may also
administer electroconvulsive therapy to those of their patients who do not respond to, or who cannot take,
medications.
 
Benchmark Title: Surgeons
Surgeons are physicians who specialize in the treatment of injury, disease, and deformity through operations. Using
a variety of instruments, and with patients under general or local anesthesia, a surgeon corrects physical
deformities, repairs bone and tissue after injuries, or performs preventive surgeries on patients with debilitating
diseases or disorders. Although a large number perform general surgery, many surgeons choose to specialize in a
specific area. One of the most prevalent specialties is orthopedic surgery: the treatment of the skeletal system
and associated organs. Others include neurological surgery (treatment of the brain and nervous system),
ophthalmology (treatment of the eye), orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology (treatment of the ear, nose, and throat),
and plastic or reconstructive surgery. Like primary care and other specialist physicians, surgeons also examine
patients, perform and interpret diagnostic tests, and counsel patients on preventive health care.
 
 
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Job Family: Podiatry
Benchmark Title: Podiatrists
Podiatrists treat corns, calluses, ingrown toenails, bunions, heel spurs, and arch problems; ankle and foot
injuries, deformities, and infections; and foot complaints associated with diseases such as diabetes. To treat
these problems, podiatrists prescribe drugs, order physical therapy, set fractures, and perform surgery. They also
fit corrective inserts called orthotics, design plaster casts and strappings to correct deformities, and design
custom-made shoes. Podiatrists may use a force plate to help design the orthotics. Patients walk across a plate
connected to a computer that reads their feet, picking up pressure points and weight distribution. From the
computer readout, podiatrists order the correct design or recommend another kind of treatment
 
 
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Job Family: Psychology
Benchmark Title: Industrial-Organizational Psychologists
Industrial-organizational psychologists apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace in
the interest of improving productivity and the quality of worklife. They also are involved in research on
management and marketing problems. They conduct applicant screening, training and development, counseling, and
organizational development and analysis. An industrial psychologist might work with management to reorganize the
work setting to improve productivity or quality of life in the workplace. They frequently act as consultants,
brought in by management in order to solve a particular problem. Most of the advances in Human Resource
Management, particularily in Compensation/Reward Systems and Performance Management Theory and Systems have been
discovered by Industrial-Organizational Psychologists.
 
Benchmark Title: Marriage and Family Therapists
Marriage and Family Therapists diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or
behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems. Apply psychotherapeutic and family systems theories
and techniques in the delivery of professional services to individuals, couples, and families for the purpose of
treating such diagnosed nervous and mental disorders.
 
Benchmark Title: Mental Health Counselors
Mental Health Counselors counsel with emphasis on prevention. Work with individuals and groups to promote optimum
mental health. May help individuals deal with addictions and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital
problems; suicide; stress management; problems with self-esteem; and issues associated with aging and mental and
emotional health.
 
Benchmark Title: Psychiatric Aides
Psychiatric aides, also known as mental health assistants or psychiatric nursing
assistants, care for mentally impaired or emotionally disturbed individuals. They work under a team that may
include psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses, social workers, and therapists. In addition to helping
patients dress, bathe, groom, and eat, psychiatric aides socialize with them and lead them in educational and
recreational activities. Psychiatric aides may play games such as cards with the patients, watch television with
them, or participate in group activities, such as sports or field trips. They observe patients and report any
physical or behavioral signs that might be important for the professional staff to know. They accompany patients to
and from examinations and treatment. Because they have such close contact with patients, psychiatric aides can have
a great deal of influence on their patients? outlook and treatment.
 
Benchmark Title: Psychiatric Technicians
Psychiatric Technicians care for mentally impaired or emotionally disturbed individuals, following physician
instructions and hospital procedures. Monitor patients' physical and emotional well-being and report to medical
staff. May participate in rehabilitation and treatment programs, help with personal hygiene, and administer oral
medications and hypodermic injections.
 
 
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Benchmark Title: Psychologists
Psychologists study the human mind and human behavior. Psychologists in health service provider fields provide
mental health care in hospitals, clinics, schools, or private settings. Psychologists employed in applied settings
such as business, industry, government or non-profits provide training, conduct research and design systems.
Clinical psychologists who constitute the largest specialty most often work in counseling centers, independent or
group practices, hospitals, or clinics. They help mentally and emotionally disturbed clients adjust to life and may
help medical and surgical patients deal with illnesses or injuries. Counseling psychologists use various
techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living.
School psychologists work in elementary and secondary schools or school district offices to resolve learning and
behavior problems of students. They may evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs and behavior management
procedures.
 
 
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Job Family: Social Services
Benchmark Title: Child, Family and School Social Workers
Child, Family, and School Social Workers provide social services and assistance to improve the social and
psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic
functioning of children. May assist single parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or
abused children. In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy. May also
advise teachers on how to deal with problem children.
 
Benchmark Title: Rehabilitation Counselors
Rehabilitation Counselors counsel individuals to maximize the independence and employability of persons coping with
personal, social, and vocational difficulties that result from birth defects, illness, disease, accidents, or the
stress of daily life. Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment facilities. Assess client needs and
design and implement rehabilitation programs that may include personal and vocational counseling, training, and job
placement.
 
Benchmark Title: Social Workers, Except Medical and Psychiatric
Social workers provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of
children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and academic functioning of children. Some social
workers assist single parents; arrange adoptions; and help find foster homes for neglected, abandoned, or abused
children. In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy. They also advise
teachers on how to cope with problem students. Some social workers may specialize in services for senior citizens.
They run support groups for family caregivers or for the adult children of aging parents. Some advise elderly
people or family members about choices in areas such as housing and transportation; they also coordinate and
monitor services.
 
Benchmark Title: Social Workers, Medical and Psychiatric
Counsel and aid individuals and families with problems that may arise during or following the recovery from
physical or mental illness by providing supportive services designed to help the persons understand, accept, and
follow medical recommendations. Include Chemical Dependency Counselors. Some States have a registration program
for Social Workers administered by the Board of Behavioral Science. A license in clinical social work (LCSW) is
required by many agencies. Most employers require a Master's degree in Social Work and some may require that it be
in some specialty, such as psychiatric social work.
 
Benchmark Title: Social and Human Service Assistants
Social and Human Service Assistants assist professionals from a wide variety of fields, such as psychology,
rehabilitation, or social work, to provide client services, as well as support for families. May assist clients in
identifying available benefits and social and community services and help clients obtain them. May assist social
workers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to human
relationships, rehabilitation, or adult daycare.
 
 
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Job Family: Surgical Technologists
Benchmark Title: Surgical Technologists and Technicians
Surgical technologists, also called scrubs and surgical or operating room technicians, assist in surgical
operations under the supervision of surgeons, registered nurses, or other surgical personnel. Surgical
technologists are members of operating room teams, which most commonly include surgeons, anesthesiologists, and
circulating nurses. Before an operation, surgical technologists help prepare the operating room by setting up
surgical instruments and equipment, sterile drapes, and sterile solutions. They assemble both sterile and
nonsterile equipment, as well as adjust and check it to ensure it is working properly. Technologists also get
patients ready for surgery by washing, shaving, and disinfecting incision sites. They transport patients to the
operating room, help position them on the operating table, and cover them with sterile surgical drapes.
Technologists also observe patients vital signs, check charts, and assist the surgical team with putting on sterile
gowns and gloves. Most Surgical Technologists today are required to have and maintain certification as a
CORT(Certified Operating Room Technician). In many cases, Certified Surgical Technologists may replace Surgical
Nurses in certain operating room procedures.
 
 
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